Classification of Dyes


What is a dye? Technically, a dye is a substance that shows an affinity towards the substrate on which it is applied. The classification of dyes is possible in many ways.


It could be an aromatic or ionizing organic compound, generally applied in the form of an aqueous solution.  The dye may also require a mordant that improves the fastness and make it permanent.


The dyes are obtained from either animal, vegetable or mineral origin. Every part of the plant can be used for extracting dyes, e.g., berries, bark, leaves, roots, wood and so on.


Classification of Dyes

  • Acid dyes

These dyes show poor washing fastness, but fair light fastness. They are suitable for protein fibers but can be used on acrylic or nylon fibers as well. Acid dyes are amongst the widely used varieties in the textile manufacturing.

  • Basic dyes

These dyes are bright in color but do not show fastness to light, perspiration or washing. Manufacturers increase its fastness by giving after-treatment. Steaming is an example of post-treatment.

  • Direct dyes

These dyes don’t show fastness towards light or washing. They are applied by giving a hot dyebath. No mordants are used in the process. The colors are usually bright. Salt is used as a fixative. The direct dyes are ideal for cellulose fabric and widely used in the textile industry.

  • Reactive dyes

The reactive dyes are popular amongst the fabric and fiber industry. A wide range of fibers is suitable for reactive dyes. Here, the molecules of the dye react with the fiber to produce color. Hence, they are called reactive dyes.


These dyes show excellent color fastness as compared to basic dyes. Alkali sets off the fixation process. Soda ash, salt and resist salt are some assistants used in the dying process. These dyes are quite versatile and popular.

  • Vat dyes

There is no other dye appropriate for cellulose fibers than Vat dyes for color fastness. Usually, Sodium Hydrosulphite is used as a reducing agent which removes oxygen from the liquid. It results in coloring of the fabric.

  • Azoic dyes

These dyes are also direct dyes, but they show excellent washing, bleaching, and light fastness. Azoic dyes are ideal for protein fibers, cellulose, and other fibers. The quality of color is quite good.


These are the different types of dyes used in the textile industry. Other than these, disperse dyes are also used. Which dye is used depends on the type of fabric, nature of the thread and fastness requirements.


Sagar Colour Co. is one of the foremost modified dyes manufacturers, stockist of Cationic and Acrylic Dyes as well as leading dye suppliers in India. As textile specialty chemicals suppliers Sagar Colour Company in Surat will be renowned globally as a prime acrylic dyes manufacturers and cationic dyes manufacturers.


Also Read:


What are the Uses of Dyes?


What Are the Different Types of Dyes and Their Properties?