Different Types of Dyes are Listed Below:
Acrylic fibers are dyed with basic dyes, while nylon and protein fibers such as wool and silk dye with acid dyes, and polyester yarn is dyed with disperse dyes. Cotton is dyed with a range of dye types, including Natural Dyes, Sulfur Dyes, and Pigment and direct dyes.
Dyes are the coloring substance used in the textile industry. They give attractive shades to the fiber by absorption, dispersion or chemical reaction. Different types of dyes have different properties and resistance to washing, sunlight. They react differently with gases, alkalies or other reactive agents.
Each dye shows affinity with a few fibers. It shows a different reaction to cleaning agents as well.
The solubility and method of application make a dye suitable for a specific fiber. In the textile industry, several varieties of dyes are used.
Here are a few examples of dyes and their properties.
Acid and Basic Dyes
Acid dyes are considered more suitable for animal and synthetic fibers. For cotton or linen, it is not appropriate.
When high washing fastness is required, the acid dye is the best.
Basic dyes are used for acrylic fibers. They are used with a mordant which is a chemical agent that helps in setting the dye on the fabric.
They are made from natural substances. They are water soluble, and the desired effect is obtained by pressing the dye on the fabric in the paste form.
The dye is dissolved in the water, and a thickening agent (usually starch) is used for making the paste. Nowadays, alginates or gum derived from seaweed is also used.
These dyes don’t need mordant. They are used for coloring silk, wool, cotton, rayon, etc. However, the poor fastness and dull colors make them less popular. The light fastness of direct dye is quite good.
They are insoluble in water but can be made soluble by using caustic soda and sodium sulfide. Salt is used while dying so that the color penetrates well.
The light fastness and washing fastness of sulfur dye are good. These are used for coloring linen and cotton. To get the desired result, the fabric is oxidized by exposing it to air. Alternatively, chemicals are used for oxidizing.
These dyes are finely ground and dispersed in water. Though they are water insoluble, the color particles get dissolved in the fiber and impart color.
These dyes are ideal for cellulose, but they are used for dying synthetic fibers also.
They can’t be called dyes actually because they don’t get dissolved into the water. Also, they don’t have any affinity to the fiber.
Therefore, the dye is affixed using resin. The fabric should not be exposed to high temperatures.
These dyes react with fiber molecules and form a chemical compound. Alkaline solution is used for this. Sometimes, heat treatment may be necessary for developing different shades.
These are a few examples. There are many other varieties of dyes that are used in the textile industry.
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